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Past Perfect Tense / Անցյալ վաղակատար ժամանակաձև

Past Perfect (անցյալ վաղակատար) ժամանակաձևը կազմվում է had+past participle (բայի 3-րդ հիմք)-ով: Հարցական ձևը կազմվում է՝ had-ը բերելով ենթակայից առաջ, իսկ ժխտականը՝ had-ին ավելացնելով not ժխտական մասնիկը:

Affarmative form / Հաստատական ձև

You had worked — Դու աշխատել էիր:

He/She had worked — Նա աշխատել էր:

They had worked — Նրանք աշխատել էին:

Interrogative form / Հարցական ձև

Had you worked? — Դու աշխատե՞լ էիր:

Had he worked? — Նա աշխատե՞լ էր:

Had it worked? — Այն աշխատե՞լ էր: (առարկա)

Had they worked? — Նրանք աշխատե՞լ էին:

Negative form / Ժխտական ձև

You had not (hadn’t) worked — Դու չէիր աշխատել:

She had not (hadn’t) worked — Նա չէր աշխատել:

We had not (hadn’t) worked — Մենք չէին աշխատել:

Past Perfect ժամանակաձևը ցույց է տալիս անցյալ ժամանակակետից առաջ ավարտված գործողություն: Անցյալ ժամանակակետը կարող է նշվել մեկ այլ գործողությամբ՝ արտահայտված Past Simple ժամանակաձևով, կամ պարագայական կապակցությամբ: Օրինակներ՝

They had walked only a few steps when it began to rain. — Նրան միայն մի քանի քայլ էին արել, երբ սկսեց անձրև գալ: (այստեղ անցյալ ժամանակակետը նշված է Past Simple-ով)

He had finished his job by 5 o’clock. — Նա ավարտել էր աշխատանքը մինչև ժամը 5-ը: (այստեղ անցյալ ժամանակակետը նշված է պարագայական կապակցությամբ)

Past Perfect ձևը հաճախ գործածվում է hardly……when (հազիվ……..երբ), scarcely….when (հազիվ….երբ), no soonerthan (հազիվ…..երբ) շաղկապների հետ:

Օրինակ` We had hardly got home when it began to rain. — Մենք հազիվ էինք տուն հասել, երբ սկսեց անձրևել:

Past Perfect-ը նաև կարող է օգտագործվել when (երբ), before (նախքան), as soon as (հենց որ), till/until (մինչև), after (հետո) շաղկապների հետ ժամանակի պարագա երկրորդական նախադասություններում, եթե առաջին գործողությունն ավարտվել է նախքան երկրորդ գործողության սկսվելը: Օրինակներ՝

When he had seen all the pictures, he left the gallery. — Երբ նա տեսավ բոլոր նկարները, հեռացավ պատկերասրահից:

Before I had met him, I already knew what he looked like. — Նախքան նրան հանդիպելը, գիտեի՝ ինչպիսի տեսք ուներ նա:

As soon as he had gone everybody felt much relieved. — Հենց որ նա հեռացավ, բոլորը մեծ թեթևություն զգացին:

I had heard nothing until you told me about it. — Ես ոչինչ չէի լսել մինչև քո այդ մասին ինձ ասելը:

After I had dressed I went up to the sitting room. — Հագնվելուց հետո, բարձրացա հյուրասենյակ:

Past Perfect – Positive and Negative

Make the positive or negative past perfect simple

1) When I arrived at the cinema, the film had started (start).

2) She had lived (live) in China before she went to Thailand.

3) After they had eaten (eat) the shellfish, they began to feel sick.

4) If you had listened (listen) to me, you would have got the job.

5) Julie didn’t arrive until after I had left (leave).

6) When we had finished (finish) dinner, we went out.

7) The garden was dead because it had been (be) dry all summer.

8) He had met (meet) her somewhere before.

9) We were late for the plane because we had forgotten (forget) our passports.

10) She told me she had studied (study) a lot before the exam.

11) The grass was yellow because it hadn’t rained (not/rain) all summer.

12) The lights went off because we hadn’t paid (not/pay) the electricity bill.

13) The children hadn’t done (not/do) their homework, so they were in trouble.

14) They hadn’t eaten (not/eat) so we went to a restaurant.

15) We couldn’t go into the concert because we hadn’t brought (not/bring) our tickets.

16) She said that she hadn’t visited (not/visit) the UK before.

17) Julie and Anne hadn’t met (not/meet) before the party.

18) I hadn’t had (not/have) breakfast when he arrived.

19) He hadn’t used (not/use) email before, so I showed him how to use it.

20) You hadn’t studied (not/study) for the test, so you were very nervous.

English today

Modern world is becoming smaller all the time. Every day distances between different countries seem less. For this reason it’s becoming more and more important to know different languages, especially English.
One billion people speak English today. That’s about 20% of the world’s population. 400 million people speak English as their first language. For the other 600 million people it’s either a second language or a foreign language.
English is the first language in the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Australia and New Zealand. It is one of the official languages in Canada, the Irish Republic and the Republic of South Africa.
As a second language English is spoken in more than 60 countries. It is used by the government, businessmen and universities.
English is the language of politics and diplomacyscience and technologybusiness and tradesport and pop music. 80% of all information in the world’s computers is in English. 75% of the world’s letters and faxes are in English. 60% of all international telephone calls are made in English. More than 60% of all scientific journals are written in English.
To know English today is absolutely necessary for every educated person, for every good specialist. Learning a language is not an easy thing. It’s a long and slow process that takes a lot of time and patience. But it’s a must.
English is taught throughout the world and a lot of people speak it quite well. In our country English is very popular: it is studied at schools (sometimes even at nursery schools), colleges and universities.
Everyone will speak English soon — I’m sure of it. We all need to understand each other. To do that we need an international language, and that’s English.

1. Why is it necessary to know English today?
2. English is a world language, isn’t it?
3. How many people speak English?
4. In what countries is English the official language (one of the official languages)?
5. Is English popular in Russia?
6. Is learning languages an easy thing?
7. When did you begin learning English?
8. How long have you been learning English?
9. Have you read any books in English?
10. Have you seen any films in English?
11. Have you ever visited an English-speaking country?
12. What other languages would you like to know?

Հոկտեմբերի 15-31 նախագծեր: Անգլերեն

PLANTS AND THEIR USES.

From earliest times plants are known to play an important part in every-day
life of man. We know plants to provide us with food, clothes, shelter and many
other necessary things. We are still as dependent upon plants as primitive man
was thousands years ago. Great necessity caused primitive man to grow plants.
And the cultivation of plants is thought to be closely connected with man’s
progress. In order to grow plants one had to settle down and to begin building
houses. Primitive men had few needs except food and clothing. Civilization has
increased man’s wants to a surprising extent. The man of today is no longer
satisfied with merely having food to eat and house to live in. He wants raw
materials, which can be made into useful things and products. Our food and
clothing are produced directly or indirectly by plants. Many animals feed on
plants and produce food and raw materials used by man. Without plant neither
animals nor men will be able to live. Many things we use in everyday life are
made from plants. The paper we write on, the clothes we wear, the tables we sit
at, all come from plants. Plants are used as timber in the making of furniture and
as fuel. Many drugs are made from plants.
Plant culture began a great many years ago. The most important plants in the
world are said to have been grown 4.000 years ago. There exist very many
species of plants. But the best known to most people are those that are useful to
men. They are grown and cultivated by farmers and are called farm crops. These
crops are used for many different purposes.
Some are used directly by man, some are consumed by animals, others are
used in industry and medicine. We can certainly expect new uses to be found and
the value of other plants to be discovered.

EXERSICE

  • Insert the necessary words from the list of words given below in appropriate
    form and translate the sentences into Armenian.
  1. We know that food provide us with animal.
  2. We still depend on; plants.
  3. If we want to cultivate this crup we must study its characteristics.
  4. These plants are used for feeding animals .
  5. Crop of plants is connected with man’s progress.
  • Answer the questions.
  1. Why are plants so important in our life? We know plants to provide us with food, clothes, shelter and manyother necessary things.
  2. Are we dependent upon plants? We are still as dependent upon plants as primitive manwas thousands years ago.
  3. What has civilization increased? Civilization hasincreased man’s wants to a surprising extent.
  4. What were primitive men’s needs? Primitive men had few needs except food and clothing.
  5. What is farm crop? They are grown and cultivated by farmers and are called farm crops. These crops are used for many different purposes.
  6. What are the spheres of the usage of plants? Some are used directly by man, some are consumed by animals, others are used in industry and medicine.
  • From the text find out the synonyms for:

the place (house) to live in; great need; different kinds of medicine; to be used
by; to find out.

  • 3. Find in the text English for:

վաղ ժամանակներից-earliest times; մշակաբույսեր-crops; կախված են բույսերից-dependent upon plants; ինչպես և շատ տարիներ առաջ-many years ago; սերտ կապված է մարդկային առաջընթացի հետ; նախադարյան մարդիկ; մարդկային պահանջներ; ուղղակի կամ անուղղակի-directly or indirectly; պատրաստված են բույսերից-are made from plants; բույսերի մշակում; բազմատեսակ բույսեր; տարբեր նպատակներ-different purposes; բույսերը և նրանց օգտագործումը; օգտակար իրեր և մթերքներ; առանց բույսերի կյանքն անհնար է; բավարարված; ամենաճանչված; ոչ մարդիկ, ոչ կենդանիները-neither animals nor men; օգտագործվում են կենդնիների կողմից-are used by animals; բույսերի արժեքը-value of other plants:

  • Translate into English.
  1. Որոշ բույսեր մշակվում են չորս հազար տարուց ի վեր: Some plants have been cultivated for over four thousand years.
  2. Բույսերը ապահովում են մեզ սնունդով և հագուստով: Plants provide us with food and clothing.
  3. Բույսերը նաև հումք են, որից մենք պատրաստում ենք զանազան իրեր: Plants are the raw material from which we make various things.
  4. Ամենակարևոր բույսերն են գյուղտնտեսականները, որովհոտև նրանք ուղակիորեն օգտագործվում են մարդկանց կողմից: The most important plants are agricultural ones because they are used directly by humans.
  5. Բույսերից են պատրաստվում շատ դեղամիջոցներ: Many medicines are made from plants.
  6. Բույսերը ապահովում են մեզ փայտով, որից պատրաստվում է կահույք, թուղթ և այլ իրեր: Many provide us with wood, which is used to make furniture, paper and other items.
  7. Այս բույերը մեզ լավ հայտնի են: These plants are well known to us.
  8. Հասկանալու համար, թե ինչպես է աճում բույսը, հարկավոր է բուսաբանություն ուսումնասիրել: To understand how a plants grows, you need to study botany.
  9. Գյուղատնտեսական մշակաբույսերը ամենակարևոր բույսերն են մեր կյանքում: Crops are the most important plants in our lives.

MY FAVORITE WRITER. ԻՄ ՍԻՐԵԼԻ ԳՐՈՂԸ

«Մասնագիտական հաղորդակցում օտար լեզվով» , էջ 35,36

Անծանոթ բառեր

Reject- մերժել

courage- քաջություն

circumstance- հանգամանք

farewell- հրաժեշտ

Unwilling- ակամա

achieved- հասել է

committed- կատարված

inevitable- անխուսափելի

ԱՆԳԼԵՐԵՆԻ ՖԼԵՇՄՈԲ

I. I. What does this quotation by a Greek philosopher mean? We have two ears and one mouth so that we can listen twice as much as we speak. Do you agree with it? What are the qualities of a good communicator?
In my opinion, this word is similar to the Armenian saying.
“You know a lot, talk less”
II. Camping
Option 1

  1. What are the 4 most important things to bring when you go camping?
    Water, food, first aid kits, clothes
  2. Where is the best place to go camping in our country?
    In nature
  3. What is the longest time you have spent camping?
    I have never participated in camps
    III. Nomophobia or smartphone addiction is a new kind of disease. This new kind of disease is especially typical to teenagers. They can’t get along without their smartphones even for a short period of time. Siblings (brothers and sisters) talk to each other by sending messages to each other from different rooms in the same apartment. Are you ill with nomophobia? How can you get rid of this addiction?
    I’m not addicted to cell phones. I think you need to travel often, it will help to find something that is more powerful than mobile.

Modal verbs: can, may, must 18.05-24.05

Can, could, and be able to

  1. We use can to say that something is possible or that somebody has the ability to do something.

e.g. He can speak many foreign languages.

  1. The negative is can’t.
  2. But can has only two forms can(present) and could (past).
  3. Can has no future and present perfect that is why in those cases we use be able to.

e.g. I will be able to meet you tomorrow.

They haven’t been able to sleep recently.

May and Might

  1. We use may or might to say that something is a possibility.

It may be true.(present)

It might be true.(past)

It might rain.(future- perhaps it will rain)

  1. The negative forms are may not and might not (mightn’t)

Remember

I,you,he….etc   may(might)  not  be (true, at home, in the office)

                                                   not be (doing, working,having)

                                                   not    do, know, have , want

Must and have to 

  1. We use must and have to to say that it is necessary to do something.

E/g I must go or I have to go

  1. The negative forms are mustn’t and don’t have to(doesn’t have to)
  2. The difference between must and have to:

You must do something.

You must meet her.

In both cases the speaker says that it is necessary.

You can’t turn right here, you have to turn left.(because of the traffic system)

I have to get up early tomorrow.My train leaves at 7:30

Exercises


1.Complete the sentences using can, could, be able to.
 1.John has traveled a lot. He can speak four languages. 2.I haven’t could sleep very well lately. 3.She can drive, but she hasn’t got a car. 4.I could see you on Friday, but I been able to meet you on Saturday. 5.You look tired. – Yes, I could sleep last night. 6.I was feeling sick yesterday. I could eat anything 7.They didn’t want to come with us, but we been able to persuade them.

2. Use may or might

1.I was surprised, that Sarah wasn’t at the meeting.- She might not have known about it. 2.He may be in the office. 3.Ask Ann, she may know. 4.I haven’t decided where I am going for holidays. I might go to England. 5.Take the umbrella. It might rain later.

3.Use must, mustn’t , have to , don’t/doesn’t have to

1.I promised I would be on time. I mustn’t be late.
2.I’m not working tomorrow, so I doesn’t have to get up early.
3.What do I must do to get a driving license?
4.I haven’t phoned Ann for ages, must phone her tonight.
5.I don’t want anyone to know. You mustn’t tell anyone.
6.He don’t have to wear a suit to work, but he usually does.
7.We haven’t got much time. We must hurry.

Lord Byron

On December 2, 1816, Lord Byron arrived at the Monastery of Mekhitarists in Venice to study the Armenian language. With the help of the abbots from the monastery of the island of San Lazzaro degli Armeni (Saint Lazarus of the Armenians), the poet got actively acquainted with the Armenian manuscripts and later would speak about the Armenian culture with great admiration.

Father Harutyun taught him the Armenian language. Later, they created the “Grammar of English and Armenian languages” together.

Byron collected his exercises in the Armenian writing in the book “Lord Byron’s Armenian Exercises and Poetry” (for those interested, this file can be downloaded here). In July 1823, Byron left Italy to join the Greek rebels who fought for independence against the Ottoman Empire.

George Byron – about Armenia and Armenians

“Arriving in Venice in 1816, I (as probably all travelers) was impressed by the community of San Lazzaro degli Armeni, which seems to unite in itself all the advantages of a monastic institution without possessing any of its vices.

Clarity, comfort, gentleness, unadulterated piety, talents, and virtues of the brothers of the order can inspire a secular man to believe that there is another, better world even in this life.

These people are clerics of an enslaved but grateful nation that has been expelled and oppressed along with the Jews and Greeks but has developed neither the anger of the former nor the servility of the latter.

This nation has acquired wealth without resorting to usury and all the honors that can be bestowed on those who are in slavery without intrigue… It would be difficult, perhaps, to find people’s chronicles less tainted by crimes than the history of Armenians whose virtues were peaceful. Vices are consequences of oppression.

But regardless of their sad fate, their country should always remain one of the most fascinating states on the entire globe. And their language perhaps only requires more study in order to become more and more attractive…

If the scripture is correctly interpreted, the paradise was exactly located in Armenia, which paid high price like the descendants of Adam as its soil participated in the bliss of the ones who had been created from its ashes. There, the water surface began to descend and Noah’s dove began its journey.

But almost at the same time with the disappearance of paradise, the misfortunes of the country began because although Armenia has been a powerful kingdom for a long time, it was rarely independent. The Persian satraps and the Turkish Pashas equally contributed to the ruin of the land where God created man in his image and likeness.

On the globe, there is no other country that would be so full of miracles as the land of Armenians…”

Առցանց աշխատանք, անգլերեն, ապրիլի 6-10

Grammar

We use much and little with uncountable nouns.

much time         little energy

we use a lot of/lots of /plenty of with uncountable and plural(countable) nouns

a lot of luck             lots of time         plenty of money

a lot of friends       lots of people      plenty of ideas

We use much/many especially in negative and interrogative sentences.

We didn’t spend much money.

Do you know many people?

In positive sentences a lot (of) is more usual.

We spent a lot of money.

He goes out a lot.

Little and few (without ‘a’) are negative ideas.

We must be quick.There is little time.

He isn’t popular.He has few friends.

A little and a few are more positive.

We have got a little time before the train leaves.

Do you speak English? “A little ”

When did you see him? “A few days ago”.

Exercises

1.Put in much or many

  1. 1.Did you buy much food?
  2. There aren’t many hotels in this town.
  3. We haven’t got much petrol.
  4. Were there many people on the train?
  5. Did many students fail the examination?
  6. She hasn’t got much money.
  7. I haven’t seen him for many years.

2.Fill in much/many/a lot of

  1. Sue drinks much tea.
  2. We didn’t spend much money.
  3. We’ll have to hurry.We haven’t got much time.
  4. He always puts much salt on his food.
  5. I use the phone many at work.
  6. Did it cost much to repair the car?
  7. I don’t know many people in this town.

3.Complete the sentences. Use much or many with one of these words.

books, countries, luggage, people, time, times

  1. I don’t read very much.I haven’t got much
  2. Quick! We must hurry. We haven’t got much
  3. Do you travel a lot? Have you been to much
  4. She hasn’t lived here very long, so she doesn’t  know many people
  5. Have you got much luggage ? No, only this bag.
  6. I know Paris very well. I’ve been there many times

4.Put in little/a little/few/a few

  1. Do you mind if I ask you …. questions?
  2. This town is not a very interesting place to visit, so …. tourists come here.
  3. I don’t think he would be a good teacher.He has got … patience.
  4. Would you like milk in your coffee? Yes, please …..
  5. Have you ever been to Paris? Yes I have been there … times.
  6. There was … traffic so the journey didn’t take very long.

5.Put in a little and a few + one of these words.

air, chairs, days, friends, letters, milk, times

  1. Last night I wrote ….  ……. to my family and friends.
  2. Can I have …. ….. in my coffee,please?
  3. Are you going out alone?  No, I am going  with … …..
  4. Have you ever been to Rome? Yes, …. ……
  5. There wasn’t much furniture  in the room –  just a table and …
  6. I’m going out for a walk. I need ….. fresh ….

Առցանց աշխատանք, ապրիլի 6-10, անգլերեն

The Parable of the Sower

That same day Jesus went out of the house and sat by the lake. Such large crowds gathered around him that he got into a boat and sat in it, while all the people stood on the shore. Then he told them many things in parables, saying: “A farmer went out to sow his seed. As he was scattering the seed, some fell along the path, and the birds came and ate it up. Some fell on rocky places, where it did not have much soil. It sprang up quickly, because the soil was shallow. But when the sun came up, the plants were scorched, and they withered because they had no root. Other seed fell among thorns, which grew up and choked the plants. Still other seed fell on good soil, where it produced a crop—a hundred, sixty or thirty times what was sown. Whoever has ears, let them hear.”

The disciples came to him and asked, “Why do you speak to the people in parables?”

He replied, “Because the knowledge of the secrets of the kingdom of heaven has been given to you, but not to them. Whoever has will be given more, and they will have an abundance. Whoever does not have, even what they have will be taken from them. This is why I speak to them in parables:

“Though seeing, they do not see;
    though hearing, they do not hear or understand.

In them is fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah:

“‘You will be ever hearing but never understanding;
    you will be ever seeing but never perceiving.
For this people’s heart has become calloused;
    they hardly hear with their ears,
    and they have closed their eyes.
Otherwise they might see with their eyes,
    hear with their ears,
    understand with their hearts
and turn, and I would heal them.’

But blessed are your eyes because they see, and your ears because they hear. For truly I tell you, many prophets and righteous people longed to see what you see but did not see it, and to hear what you hear but did not hear it.

“Listen then to what the parable of the sower means: When anyone hears the message about the kingdom and does not understand it, the evil one comes and snatches away what was sown in their heart. This is the seed sown along the path. The seed falling on rocky ground refers to someone who hears the word and at once receives it with joy. But since they have no root, they last only a short time. When trouble or persecution comes because of the word, they quickly fall away. The seed falling among the thorns refers to someone who hears the word, but the worries of this life and the deceitfulness of wealth choke the word, making it unfruitful. But the seed falling on good soil refers to someone who hears the word and understands it. This is the one who produces a crop, yielding a hundred, sixty or thirty times what was sown.”

Select the right answer.

1. What happened to the seed that fell on the path?

a) It started to grow but could not take root.

b) Birds ate it.

c) It got choked out.

2. What happened to the seed that fell on rocky soil?

a) It started to grow but could not take root.

b) Birds ate it.

c) It got choked out.

3. What characterizes people who are like the seed that fell among thorns?

a) As soon as they hear what God says, Satan swoops down and takes it away.

b) They hear what God says but the worries of life, the deceitfulness of wealth and the desire for other things make them unfruitful.

4. Why did some seed produce a crop?

a) It was a special kind of seed.

b) It fell on good soil.

5. What characterizes people who are like the seed sown on good soil?

a) They hear God’s word and obey it.

b) When troubles come they quickly fall away.